Poets & Poems

Poetries and Poetics


Chapter One
Poetry from Antiquity

Section One
(Greek Poetry)

1. A. Preliminary Readings

1.1 Plato (ca. 429? – 347 B.C): The Republic, II, III, X
The Republic (The Internet Classics Archive)
Plato: The Republic (IEP)
Plato on Rhetoric and Poetry (SEP)

1.2 Aristotle (384 – 322 B.C): Poetics (ca. 335 B.C.)
Poetics (Internet Classics Archive)
Aristotle: Poetics (IEP)

 1. B. Poets and Poems

1.3 Homer (c. 8th century B.C)
• Biography from Poets
• The Iliad
A. S. Kline (Poetry in Translation)
Samuel Butler (The Internet Classics Archive)
• Odyssey
A. S. Kline (Poetry in Translation)
Samuel Butler (The Internet Classics Archive)

1.4 Sappho (c. 620-550 B.C)
• Biography from Poetry; Poets
Sappho: One Hundred Lyrics (Bliss Carman, 1907)
from Sappho (EPC Digital Library)
Fragment 31
• Fragment

1.5 Pindar (c. 518-438 B.C)
• Biography (Classical Literature)
Olympian (Perseus Project)
Pythian (Perseus Project)
Nemean (Perseus Project)
Isthmian (Perseus Project)

Section Two
(Latin Poetry)

2.1 Horace (65 – 8 B.C): Ars Poetica (19 B.C)
Ars Poetica (Poetry)
Horace: Ars Poetica (Poetry In Trnslation)

2.2 Longinus: On the Sublime (ca. 1st century A.D)
On the Sublime (Adelaide)
Longinus (Poetry)

2. B. Poets and Poems

2.3 Catullus (c. 86-56 B.C)
• Biography (Poets)
CATVLLI CARMINA (Latin, by Robinson Ellis)
Catullus: The Poems (trans. A. S. Kline, 2001)
Catullus: Poems and Fragments (trans. Robinson Ellis (1871))
Catullus: The Carmina (trans. Sir Richard F Burton (1894))

2.4 Virgil (70 – 19 B.C)
• Biography (Poets, Poetry)
P. VERGILIVS MARO (Latin Library)
Eclogues (trans. J. B. Greenough, 1895; A. S. Kline, 2001; J. W. MacKail, 1934)
Georgics (trans. J. B. Greenough; A. S. Kline, 2001; J. W. MacKail, 1934)
The Aeneid (trans. Dryden; A. S. Kline; Theodore C. William)

2.5 Horace (65 – 8 B.C)
• Biography (Poets, Poetry)
The Works of Horace (trans. A. M. C. Smart)
Odes (4 books) (trans. A. S. Kline, 2003)
Satires (2 books) (trans. A. S. Kline, 2005; Perseus)
Ars Poetica (trans. A. S. Kline; Poetry)

2.6  Ovid (43 B.C – 17 A.D)
• Biography (Poets)
P. OVIDIVS NASO (Latin Library)
The Love Books of Ovid (trans. J. Lewis May)
Amores (trans. A. S. Kline)
Ars Amatoria (trans. A. S. Kline)
Remedia Amoris (trans. A. S. Kline)
Metamorphoses (trans. Dryden, et al)


 Section Three
(Chinese Poetry)

 3. A. Preliminary Readings

3.1 Lu Chi: The Art of Writing (ca. 200 A. D.)
• Wikipedia
The Art of Writing (Humanistic Texts)

3. B. Poets and Poems

3.2 Shi Ching (The Book of Poetry)
• Translations
James Legge, 1876 (Sacred Texts)
William Jennings, 1891 (Liberty Fund)
Chinese-English edition (Chinese Text Project)

3.3 Wang Wei (699-759 A.D)
• Biography (Biography)
Wang Wei Index (Chinese Poems)
Like Water or Clouds (PIT)
Wang Wei Poetry (China the Beautiful)
Wang Wei Poems (Shigeku)

3.4 Li Po (also Li Bai) (701-762 A.D)
• Biography from Poetry
Li Bai Index (Chinese Poems)
Li Bai English Translations (Chinese Poems)
Li Bai Poetry (China the Beautiful)
Li Po Poems (Shigeku)

3.5 Tu Fu (also Du Fu) (712-770 A.D)
• Biography from Poetry
Du Fu Index (Chinese Poems)
Du Fu English Translations (Chinese Poems)
Du Fu Poetry (China the Beautiful)
Tu Fu Poems (Shigeku)

  Section Four
(Persian/Urdu Poetry)

4. A. Preliminary Readings

4.1 Ghazal (Poetic Form)

4. B. Poets and Poems

4.2 Rumi (1207-1273)
• Biography (Poets)
Rumi Index
Love poems (rumi.org.uk)
Mystic poems (rumi.org.uk)
Passion (rumi.org.uk)
Wedding poems (rumi.org.uk)
Life and Death (rumi.org.uk)
Realization (rumi.org.uk)
Rumi’s Poetry (Peaceful Rivers)
Selected poems (On Being)

4.3 Hafiz (1319-1389)
• Biography (Poetry, ICS, SOH)
Hafiz Ghazals (trans. S. Shahriari)
Hafiz’s Poetry (Peaceful Rivers)
Hafiz translations (SOH)


  Section Five)
(Italian Poetry)

5. A. Preliminary Readings

5. B. Poets and Poems

5.2 Dante Alighieri (1265 – 1321)
• Biography (Poets, SEP)
Dante Projects (Digital Dante)
Vita Nuova (trans. Andrew Frisardi)
Convivio (trans. Richard Lansing)
Commedia (trans. A. S. Kline; H. F. Cary; Digital Dante)
Monarchia (Liberty Library, Princeton Dante Project)

5.3 Petrach (1304-1374)
• Biography (Poets, Poetry, HT)
The Complete Canzoniere (trans. A. S. Kline, 2002)
Sonnets, Triumphs, and Others (Project Gutenberg)

(Section Six)
(English Poetry)

6. A. Preliminary Readings

6. B. Poets and Poems

6.1 Geoffrey Chaucer (1343 – 1400)
• Biography (Poets)
The House of Fame Texts (eChaucer, OMACL, Sacred Texts)
The House of Fame Translations (Kline, 2007; NeCastro, 2007)
Troilus and Criseyde (Middle English) (Project Gutenberg, UMDL, LibriVox)
Troilus and Cressida (Modern English) (eChaucer)
The Canterbury Tales (texts: Walter W. Skeat, ed.; UMDL)
The Canterbury Tales (trans. Kline, 2007; Ecker & Crook, 1993; LibriVox)
• eChaucer (Texts; Translations)

6.2 William  Shakespeare (1564 – 1616)

6.3 John Milton (1608 -1674)

6.4 John Dryden (1631 – 1700)

6.5 Alexander Pope (1688 – 1744)

6.6 Samuel Johnson (1709–1784)


 (Section Seven)
(Japanese Poetry)

7. A. Preliminary Readings

7.1 Japanese Poetry Forms (Hubpages)

7.2 Waka

7.3 Renga

7.4 Haikai/Rengu

7.5 Haibun

7.6 Haigai

7.7 Tanka

7.8 Haiku

7.9 Senryu

7. B. Poets and Poems

7.10 Kyakunin Isshu: A Hundred Verse from Old Japan (trans. William N. Porter, 1909)

7.11 Kyakunin Isshu: 100 Poems by 100 Poets (Japanese Text Initiative, 1998)

7.12 Matsuo Basho (1644-1694)

7.13 Yosa Buson (1716-1783)

7.14 Kobayashi Issa (1763-1828)

7.15 Masoaka Shiki (1867-1902)

Chapter Two
Romantic Poets and Poetry

1. A. Preliminary Readings

3.1 A Brief Guide to Romanticism (Poets)

3.2 Percy B Shelley: A Defense of Poetry (1821)
A Defense of Poetry (Poetry)
A Defense of Poetry (Bartleby)

3.3 Matthew Arnold: The Study of Poetry (1880)
The Study of Poetry (Poetry)
Matthew Arnold as a Literary Critic (LSJ)

1. B. Poets and Poems

1.2 William Blake (1757 – 1827)

1.2 William Wordsworth (1770 – 1850)

1.3 Samuel Taylor Coleridge (1772-1834)

1.4 Percy Bysshe Shelley (1792 – 1822)

1.5 John Keats (1795 – 1821)

1.6 Alexander Pushkin (1799 – 1837)

1.7 Victor Hugo (1802 – 1885)

1.8 Ralph Waldo Emerson (1803 – 1882)


Chapter Three
Poetry in Modernist Movements

Section One
(Transition to Modernism)

A: Preliminary Readings

1. Glossary: Modernism (Poetry)

2. Witcombe’s Roots of Modernism (art history resource)

3. Poetic Modes in the Late 19th and Early 20th Century

B. Poets and Poems

4. Walt Whitman (1819 – 1892)

5. Emily Dickinson (1830 – 1886)

6. Robert Frost (1874 – 1963)

7. Rainer Maria Rilke (1875 – 1926)


 Section Two
(Introduction to Modern Poetry)

1. Impressionism

1. A. Preliminary Readings

Claude Monet (1840–1926)

Pierre-Auguste Renoir (1841–1919)

Camille Pissarro (1830–1903)

Paul Cezanne (1839–1906)


2. Symbolism

2. A. Preliminary Readings

2.1 A Brief Guide to the Symbolists (Poets)

Charles Baudelaire

Arthur Rimbaud

Stephen Mallarme

Paul Valery


3. Cubism

3. A. Preliminary Readings

Guillaume Apollinaire

Pablo Picasso


Pierre Reverdy


4. Modernism

4. A. Preliminary Readings

4.1 A Brief Guide to Modernism (Poets)

4. B. Poets and Poems

Gertrude Stein

Ezra Pound

T. S. Eliot

William Carlos Williams

Wallace Stevens

Marianne Moore

W. H. Auden


5. Imagism

5. A. Preliminary Readings

5.1 A Brief Guide to Imagism (Poets)

5.2 A Few Don’t by an Imagiste (by Ezra Pound)

5.3 On Imagism (by Amy Lowell)

5.4 The Poem as a Field of Action (William Carlos Williams)

 5. B. Poets and Poems

5.5 Ezra Pound

5.6 Amy Lowell

5.7 D. H. Lawrence



Anna Akhmatova


6. Poetry and World War I

6. A. Preliminary Readings

6.1 The Western Front and the Birth of Total War (by Stephen Badsey)

6.2 Shell Shock During World War One (by Joanna Bourke)

6.3 Versailles and Peacemaking (by Ruth Henig)

6. B. Poets of War

6.4 Wilfred Owen

6.5 Siegfried Sassoon

6.6 Isaac Rosenberg


7. Futurism

7. A. Preliminary Readings

7.1 A Brief Guide to Futurism (Poets)

7.2 Futurist Velocities (by Christine Poggi)

7.3 Italian Futurism (wendtroot.com)

7.4 Italian Futurism and Facism (by Alan Woods)


8. Vorticism

8. A. Preliminary Readings

8.1 Introduction to Vorticism (voriticism.co.uk)

8.2 BLAST: An Introduction (by Mark Morrisson)

8.3 Vortex (by Ezra Pound)

8.4 Vorticism (by Ezra Pound)


9. Objectivism

9. A. Preliminary Readings

9.1 Glossary: Objectivism (Poetry)

9.2 A Brief Guide to the Objectivists (Poets)

9.3 The Energies of Words (by Peter O’Leary)

9. B. Poets and Poems

9.4 Louis Zukofsky

9.5 George Oppen

9.6 Kenneth Rexroth

10. High Modernism

10. A. Preliminary Readings

10.1 Tradition and the Individual Talent (by T. S. Eliot)

10. B. Poets and Poems

10.2 T. S. Eliot, The Waste Land (1922)

10.3 D. H. Lawrence, Birds, Beasts, and Flowers (1923)

10.4 William Carlos Williams, Spring and All (1923)

10.5 Wallace Stevens, Harmonium (1923)

10.6 Ezra Pound, Cantos (1925)

10.7 W. H. Auden


11. Harlem Renaissance

11. A. Preliminary Readings

11.1 A Brief Guide to Harlem Renaissance (Poets)

11.2 Harlem Renaissance: Pivotal Period in the Development of Afro-American Culture (YNHTI)

11.3 The Negro Artist and the Racial Mountain (by Langston Hughes)

11.4 The Black Poet as Canon-Maker (by Elizabeth Alexander)

11.5 Double-bind: Three Women of the Harlem Renaissance (by Antony Walton)

11. B. Poets and Poems

11.6 Langston Hughes

11.7 Claude McKay

11.8 Countee Cullen


12. World War 2 and its Effects on Poetry

1. After the End of the World: Poetry and the Holocaust (by Jay Ladin)

2. Holocaust Poetry: Another View (by Alicia Ostriker)

3. Pre-war Japanese American Haiku (by Violet Kazue de Cristoforo)

4. Cultural aspects of atomic anxiety (by Alan Filreis)


Chapter Four
Postmodern Poetry and Beyond

1. Preliminary Readings

1. Postmodernism (by Mary Klages)

2. Understanding Postmodern Poetry (by Karen Y Hamilton)

3. Postmodernism in Poetry (by C. John Holcombe)

4. The Genealogy of Postmodernism: Contemporary American Poetry (by Albert Gelpi)


2. Surrealism

2. A. Preliminary Readings

2.1 A Brief Guide to Surrealism (Poetry)

2. B. Poets and Poems

2.2 Guillaume Apollinaire

2.3 Andre Breton

2.4 Antonin Artaud

2.5 Paul Eluard

2.6 Louis Aragon

2.7 Tristan Tzara


3. Beat Generation & San Francisco Renaissance

3. A. Preliminary Readings

3.1 Glossary: Beat poets (Poetry)

3.2 A Brief Guide to the Beat Poets (Poets)

3.3 Glossary: San Francisco Renaissance (Poetry)

3.4 A Brief Guide to the San Francisco Renaissance (poets.org)

3. B. Poets and Poems

Kenneth Rexroth (1905-1982)

Jack Kerouac (1922-1969)

Allen Ginsberg (1926-1997)

Gary Snyder (1930-)


4. Confessional Poets

. A Brief Guide to Confessional Poetry (Poets)

Poets and Poems

Robert Lowell

Anne Sexton

Sylvia Plath

Sharon Olds


New York School

7. A Brief Guide to the New York School (Poets)

Poets and Poems

Kenneth Koch

James Schuyler

Frank O’Hara

John Ashbery

Barbara Guest

Ted Berrigan

Ron Padgett

Anne Waldman


Black Mountain School

8. A Brief Guide to the Black Mountain School (Poets)

Poets and Poems

Charles Olson

Robert Duncan

Denis Levertov

Robert Creeley


Language Poets (LP)

0. A Brief Guide to Language Poetry (Poets)

Poets and Poems

Charles Bernstein

Ron Silliman

Susan Howe

Lyn Hejinian

Paul Celan

Rae Armantrout


Conceptual Poets

11. A Brief Guide to Conceptual Poetry (Poets)

12. Relationship between Conceptual Art and Conceptual Writing (Jacket 2)

Poets and Poems

Kenneth Goldsmith

Eleanor Wilner

Vanessa Place


13. A Brief Guide to Flarf Poetry (by Gary Sullivan)


14. Flarf is Dionysus. Conceptual Writing is Apollo (by Kenneth Goldsmith)

15. Notes on Post-conceptual Poetry (by Felix Bernstein)

Postmodern poets

Theodore Roethke

Elizabeth Bishop

John Berryman

Robert Lowell

Philip Larkin

Seamus Heaney

George Oppen

Charles Olson

Robert Creeley

Denise Levertov

Robert Duncan

Frank O’Hara

Allen Ginsberg

W. S. Merwin

Gary Snyder

Sylvia Plath

Anne Sexton

Adrienne Rich

Gwendolin Brooks


John Ashbery







Billy Collins (1941- )

Rae Armantrout (1947- )

Vanessa Place (1961- )

John Ashbery (1927- )

Charles Bernstein (1960- )

Ron Silliman (1946- )

Susan Howe (1937- )

  • Biography from Poets

Zeyar Lynn

Yusef Komunyakaa (1947- )

  • Biography from Poets

Amiri Baraka (1934-2014)

  • Biography from Poets

Tomas Tranströmer (1931 – )

  • Biography from Poets

Zbigniew Herbert (1924-1988)

  • Biography from Poets

Czeslaw Milosz (1911-2004)

  • Biography from Poets

Osip Mandelstam (1891-1938)

Najwan Darwish

Biography from Poetry






*work in progress


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